For U.S. Healthcare Professionals Only

Differentiating aTTP

Is it TTP or aHUS?

The clinical presentation of acquired TTP (aTTP)/immune-mediated TTP can be strikingly similar to aHUS, which is why diagnosis can often be complicated.
The platelet count and creatinine levels may guide toward distinguishing one from the other.8,13

Indicators of aTTP/iTTP:

  • Creatinine <2.25 mg/dL
  • Platelet count <30 × 109/L

Indicators of aHUS:

  • Creatinine ≥2.25 mg/dL
  • Platelet count ≥30 × 109/L

Biopsies can be useful in differentiating aTTP/iTTP from aHUS in difficult cases

Biopsies can be useful in difficult diagnostic situations. Sampling of any accessible, highly vascular site may help inform the differential diagnosis of a TMA, based on pathologic distinctions between TTP/iTTP and aHUS.8,24,25

Indicators of aTTP:

Biopsy sample of any accessible, highly vascular site shows the following:

1) Microthrombi appears as “white clots,” composed of platelets and vWF, with only small amounts of fibrin.
2) Vascular or perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrations are minimal or absent.

Indicators of aHUS:

Biopsy sample of any accessible, highly vascular site shows the following:

1) Microthrombi appears as “red clots,” predominated by fibrin.
2) An inflammatory infiltrate may be seen together with deposits of C5b-9.

aTTP poses dangerous risks

LEARN ABOUT CABLIVI

Guideline recommends CABLIVI

DOWNLOAD ISTH TTP GUIDELINE INFOGRAPHIC

IMPORTANT SAFETY
INFORMATION AND INDICATIONS

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

CABLIVI is contraindicated in patients with a previous severe hypersensitivity reaction to caplacizumab-yhdp or to any of its excipients. Hypersensitivity reactions have

Add

IMPORTANT SAFETY
INFORMATION AND INDICATIONS

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

CABLIVI is contraindicated in patients with a previous severe hypersensitivity reaction to caplacizumab-yhdp or to any of its excipients. Hypersensitivity reactions have included urticaria.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS:

Hemorrhage:
  • CABLIVI increases the risk of bleeding. In clinical studies, severe bleeding adverse reactions of epistaxis, gingival bleeding, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and metrorrhagia were each reported in 1% of subjects. Overall, bleeding events occurred in approximately 58% of patients on CABLIVI versus 43% of patients on placebo.
  • In the postmarketing setting cases of life-threatening and fatal bleeding were reported in patients receiving CABLIVI.
  • The risk of bleeding is increased in patients with underlying coagulopathies (e.g. hemophilia, other coagulation factor deficiencies). It is also increased with concomitant use of CABLIVI with drugs affecting hemostasis and coagulation.
  • Avoid concomitant use of CABLIVI with antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants. If clinically significant bleeding occurs, interrupt use of CABLIVI. Von Willebrand factor concentrate may be administered to rapidly correct hemostasis. If CABLIVI is restarted, monitor closely for signs of bleeding.
  • Withhold CABLIVI for 7 days prior to elective surgery, dental procedures or other invasive interventions. If emergency surgery is needed, the use of von Willebrand factor concentrate may be considered to correct hemostasis. After the risk of surgical bleeding has resolved, and CABLIVI is resumed, monitor closely for signs of bleeding.

ADVERSE REACTIONS:

The most common adverse reactions (>15% of patients) were epistaxis (29%), headache (21%) and gingival bleeding (16%).

CONCOMITANT USE OF ANTICOAGULANTS OR ANTIPLATELET AGENTS:

Concomitant use of CABLIVI with any anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent may increase the risk of bleeding. Avoid concomitant use when possible. Assess and monitor closely for bleeding with concomitant use.

PREGNANCY:

There are no available data on CABLIVI use in pregnant women to inform a drug associated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage.

  • Fetal/neonatal adverse reactions: CABLIVI may increase the risk of bleeding in the fetus and neonate. Monitor neonates for bleeding.
  • Maternal adverse reactions: All patients receiving CABLIVI, including pregnant women, are at risk for bleeding. Pregnant women receiving CABLIVI should be carefully monitored for evidence of excessive bleeding.

INDICATIONS:

CABLIVI (caplacizumab-yhdp) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP), in combination with plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy.

Please see Full Prescribing Information

Instructions for Use

Sharps Medical Waste Disposal (PDF)

Click here to learn more about Sanofi's commitment to fighting counterfeit drugs.

References: 1. CABLIVI [package insert]. Cambridge, MA: Genzyme Corporation. 2. Scully M, Cataland SR, Peyvandi F, et al; for the HERCULES Investigators. Caplacizumab treatment for acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(4):335-346. 3. Zheng XL, Vesely SK, Cataland SR, et al. ISTH guidelines for the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18(10):2486-2495. doi:10.1111/jth.15006. 4. Grall M, Azoulay E, Galicier L, et al. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura misdiagnosed as autoimmune cytopenia: causes of diagnostic errors and consequence on outcome. Experience of the French thrombotic microangiopathies reference centre. Am J Hematol. 2017;92(4):381-387. 5. Scully M, Hunt BJ, Benjamin S, et al. On behalf of British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and other thrombotic microangiopathies. Br J Haematol. 2012;158(3):323-335. 6. Goel R, King KE, Takemoto CM, Ness PM, Tobian AAR. Prognostic risk-stratified score for predicting mortality in hospitalized patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: national representative data from 2007 to 2012. Transfusion. 2016;56(6):1451-1458. 7. Peyvandi F, Scully M, Kremer Hovinga JA, et al. Caplacizumab reduces the frequency of major thromboembolic events, exacerbations and death in patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. J Thromb Haemost. 2017;15(7):1448-1452. 8. Joly BS, Coppo P, Veyradier A. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood. 2017;129(21):2836-2846. 9. Masias C, Wu H, McGookey M, Jay L, Cataland S, Yang S. No major differences in outcomes between the initial and relapse episodes in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: the experience from the Ohio State University Registry. Am J Hematol. 2018;93(3):E73-E75. doi:10.1002/ajh.25002. 10. Schieppati F, Russo L, Marchetti M, et al. Low levels of ADAMTS-13 with high anti-ADAMTS-13 antibodies during remission of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura highly predict for disease relapse: a multi-institutional study. Am J Hematol. 2020;95(8):953-959. doi:10.1002/ajh.25845. 11. Knoebl P, Cataland S, Peyvandi F, et al. Efficacy and safety of open-label caplacizumab in patients with exacerbations of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in the HERCULES study. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18(2):479-484. doi:10.1111/jth.14679. 12. Sayani FA, Abrams CS. How I treat refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood. 2017;130(14):1684. doi:10.1182/blood-2017-08-803171. 13. Kremer Hovinga JA, Coppo P, Lämmle B, Moake JL, Miyata T, Vanhoorelbeke K. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17020. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2017.20. 14. Holz J-B. The TITAN trial—assessing the efficacy and safety of an anti-von Willebrand factor Nanobody in patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Transfus Apher Sci. 2012;46(3):343-346. 15. Azoulay E, Bauer PR, Mariotte E, et al; Nine-i Investigators. Expert statement on the ICU management of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Intensive Care Med. 2019;45(11):1518-1539. doi:10.1007/s00134-019-05736-5. 16. Kremer Hovinga JA, Vesely SK, Terrell DR, Lämmle B, George JN. Survival and relapse in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood. 2010;115(8):1500-1511. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-09-243790. 17. Upreti H, Kasmani J, Dane K, et al. Reduced ADAMTS13 activity during TTP remission is associated with stroke in TTP survivors. Blood. 2019;134(13):1037-1045. doi:10.1182/blood.2019001056. 18. Cuker A, Cataland SR, Coppo P, et al. Redefining outcomes in immune TTP: an international working group consensus report. Blood. 2021;137(14):1855-1861. doi:10.1182/blood.2020009150. 19. Vincent J-L, Castro P, Hunt BJ, et al. Thrombocytopenia in the ICU: disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombotic microangiopathies—what intensivists need to know. Crit Care. 2018;22(1):158. 20. Chiasakul T, Cuker A. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of TTP: an integrated approach. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2018;2018(1):530-538. 21. Canpolat N. Hemolytic uremic syndrome. Turk Pediatri Ars. 2015;50(2):73-82. 22. Venugopal A. Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Indian J Anaesth. 2014;58(5):603-608. 23. Wada H, Matsumoto T, Suzuki K, et al. Differences and similarities between disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombotic microangiopathy. Thromb J. 2018;16:14. 24. Cataland SR, Wu HM. How I treat: the clinical differentiation and initial treatment of adult patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Blood. 2014;123(16):2478-2484. 25. Laurence J, Haller H, Mannucci PM, Nangaku M, Praga M, de Cordoba SR. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS): essential aspects of an accurate diagnosis. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2016;14 Suppl 11(11):2-15. 26. Supplement to: Scully M, Cataland SR, Peyvandi F, et al; for the HERCULES Investigators. Caplacizumab treatment for acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(4):335-346. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1806311. 27. Protocol for: Scully M, Cataland SR, Peyvandi F, et al; for the HERCULES Investigators. Caplacizumab treatment for acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(4):335-346. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1806311. 28. CABLIVI [instructions for use]. Cambridge, MA: Genzyme Corporation. 29. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Draft ICD-10-CM/PCS MS-DRGv28 Definitions Manual: MDC 8 Diseases & Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System & Connective Tissue Disorders. https://www.cms.gov/icd10manual/fullcode_cms/P0209.html. Accessed July 25, 2019. 30. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Department of Health and Human Services. 42 CFR Parts 405, 412, 413, 417, 476, 480, 484, and 495. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Final Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2021 Rates; Quality Reporting and Medicare and Medicaid Promoting Interoperability Programs Requirements for Eligible Hospitals and Critical Access Hospitals Fed Regist. September 18, 2020;85(182):58432-59107. 31. Brodie S. Regulatory insight: Reviewing ICD-10-PCS Section X. ACDIS. Acdis.org website. https://acdis.org/resources/regulatory-insight-reviewing-icd-10-pcs-section-x. Accessed December 9, 2020. 32. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2019 ICD-10-CM. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Coding/ICD10/2019-ICD-10-CM.html. Updated June 20, 2019. Accessed July 23, 2020. 33. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2020 ICD-10-PCS. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Coding/ICD10/2020-ICD-10-PCS.html. Accessed July 25, 2020.